Twenty-Seventh Sunday in Ordinary Time
- Dan’s Deliberations, Discoveries, & Declarations
- Today in Catholic History
- Quote of the Day
- Today’s Gospel Reading
- Gospel Reflection
- Reflection Prayer
- New Translation of the Mass
- A Franciscan’s Saint of the Day
- Franciscan Formation Reflection
- Reflection on part of the SFO Rule
Prayer Intentions of Pope Benedict XVI for October, 2011
That the terminally ill may be supported by their faith in God and the love of their brothers and sisters.
That the celebration of World Mission Day may foster in the People of God a passion for evangelization with the willingness to support the missions with prayer and economic aid for the poorest Churches.
I can’t believe it has already been exactly five years ago today (2006) that five school girls were murdered by Charles Carl Roberts in a hostage/shooting event at an Amish school in Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania. Charles Roberts committed suicide after killing the girls.
Ironically, today is also an “International Day of Non-Violence”, commemorating the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948).
When will violence among God’s creations end?!
† 1187 – Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule.
† 1264 – Death of Urbanus IV, [Jacques Pantaleon], French Pope (1261-64)
† 1538 – Birth of Saint Charles Borromeo, Italian cardinal/saint (d. 1584)
† 1833 – Birth of Rev. William Corby, American Catholic priest (d. 1897)
† 1928 – The “Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Work of God”, commonly known as Opus Dei, was founded by Saint Josemaría Escrivá.
† 1931 – Pope Pius XI publishes encyclical on economic crisis
(From the “On This Day” Blog Site
“Today in Catholic History”
The country clubs, the cars, the boats, – – your assets – – may be ample, but the best inheritance you can leave your kids is a good example. ~ Barry Spilchuk
Today’s reflection is about Jesus telling the parable of the “Wicked Tenants”.
(NAB Matthew 21:33-43) 33 “Hear another parable. There was a landowner who planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a wine press in it, and built a tower. Then he leased it to tenants and went on a journey. 34 When vintage time drew near, he sent his servants to the tenants to obtain his produce. 35 But the tenants seized the servants and one they beat, another they killed, and a third they stoned. 36 Again he sent other servants, more numerous than the first ones, but they treated them in the same way. 37 Finally, he sent his son to them, thinking, ‘They will respect my son.’ 38But when the tenants saw the son, they said to one another, ‘This is the heir. Come, let us kill him and acquire his inheritance.’ 39 They seized him, threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him. 40 What will the owner of the vineyard do to those tenants when he comes?” 41 They answered him, “He will put those wretched men to a wretched death and lease his vineyard to other tenants who will give him the produce at the proper times.” 42 Jesus said to them, “Did you never read in the scriptures: ‘The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; by the Lord has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes’? 43 Therefore, I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people that will produce its fruit.
Today’s Gospel follows last Sunday’s Gospel in which Jesus was questioned by Jewish religious leaders about the source of his teaching authority. After refusing to answer their questions, Jesus tells the parable of “the two sons”. He then criticizes the priests and elders for their lack of belief in John the Baptist’s message. See last week’s reflection for more on this Gospel reading.
In today’s Gospel, Jesus speaks to the priests and elders with a different parable on justice. In this parable, the landowner leases his vineyard to “tenants” and sends his servants to collect the portion of the harvest the tenants owe to him. Several times the “servants” are sent to collect payment. Each time, they are beaten and/or killed by the tenants. Finally, the landowner sends his “son” to collect his rent. The tenants, believing that they will inherit the vineyard if the landowner dies without an heir, plot together and kill the landowner’s son.
After telling today’s parable, Jesus questions the chief priests and elders about what the landowner will do to the wicked tenants. They all agree that the landowner should kill the “wicked tenants” and give the land to “new tenants” who will pay the rent. (That’s “eviction” at its extreme!)
In telling the parable, Jesus is clearly drawing upon the prophecy found in Isaiah (Isaiah 5:1-7), which is also purposely today’s first reading because of its strong connection with the Gospel reading. Isaiah’s prophecy about the vineyard and bloodshed is one which the priests and elders would have known well, and even taught in the Temple regularly.
Jesus doesn’t, therefore, have to explain the symbolism of the parable; the Pharisees and elders would have understood the symbolism already:
- 1. the “vineyard” represents “Israel”,
- 2. the “landowner” represents “God”,
- 3. the “servants” represents “the prophets”, and
- 4. the “bad tenants” represents “the religious leaders”.
Yet, Jesus continues to explain the meaning of the parable for His audience: the “kingdom of God” will be taken from the “unbelieving” (as “judged” by the Temple leaders and the Jewish society as a whole) and given to the “faithful” people of Judah. The climactic moment in these “justice” parables is when the chief priests and elders inadvertently condemn “themselves” in answering Jesus’ question.
The hills of Galilee were alive with the sounds of music, and were lined with numerous vineyards. It was quite common for the land owners to rent out their land to “tenants” and to expect regular payment of a portion of produce harvested. Many did so because they could also make a lot of money easily by collecting high rent from their renters. Their riches and status in life allowed them to travel and own homes in various other places. (Sounds exactly like today’s wealthy class.)
In this parable there is a close correspondence between the details of the parable and the situation it is meant to illustrate: the dealings of God with His people. Because of the heavy symbolic representations (allegory), some bible scholars think this parable does not originate with Jesus Christ, but represents the theology of the later first-century Catholic Church. This scholarly belief also applies to Mark’s parallel parable (Mark 12: 2-10). However, the symbolism in Matthew’s version goes further.
There are bible scholars, however, who believe, that while many of the symbolic elements are derived from to church sources, they have been added to a parable originated and spoken by Jesus Himself (and this is my belief as well). This view is supported by the apocryphal “Gospel of Thomas”, in which less symbolism is found:
“A person owned a vineyard and rented it to some farmers, so they could work it and he could collect its crop from them. He sent his slave so the farmers would give him the vineyard’s crop. They grabbed him, beat him, and almost killed him, and the slave returned and told his master. His master said, ‘Perhaps he didn’t know them.’ He sent another slave, and the farmers beat that one as well. Then the master sent his son and said, ‘Perhaps they’ll show my son some respect.’ Because the farmers knew that he was the heir to the vineyard, they grabbed him and killed him. Anyone here with two ears had better listen!” (Gospel of Thomas, 65)
Jesus’ parable was unsettling to some of His audience. Why did the Pharisees and elders in particular, feel offended at Jesus’ message? Perhaps it is because Jesus’ parable contained both a prophetic message AND a warning to the religious community and its religious leaders. Centuries earlier, Isaiah spoke of the “house of Israel” as “the vineyard of the Lord” (Isaiah 5:7). Isaiah warned his people that their unfaithfulness would yield bad fruit (loss of freedom, and captivity by others) – – if they did not repent and change. Jesus’ listeners understood this parable as a “healthy reminder” that God the Father will, in due time, rid the “bad fruit” from the “harvest”, putting an end to all rebellion.
“Now let me sing of my friend, my beloved’s song about his vineyard. My friend had a vineyard on a fertile hillside; He spaded it, cleared it of stones, and planted the choicest vines; Within it he built a watchtower, and hewed out a wine press. Then he waited for the crop of grapes, but it yielded rotten grapes.” (Isaiah 5:1–2);
“The vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, the people of Judah, his cherished plant; He waited for judgment, but see, bloodshed! for justice, but hark, the outcry!” (Isaiah 5:7)
I find it interesting that Isaiah defines the vineyard as “the house of Israel, the people of Judah”, the Jewish people.
In today’s parable, Matthew relates two episodes of sending multiple servants, as compared to Mark’s three episodes of a single servant, in his parallel parable:
“At the proper time he sent a servant to the tenants to obtain from them some of the produce of the vineyard. But they seized him, beat him, and sent him away empty-handed. Again he sent them another servant. And that one they beat over the head and treated shamefully. He sent yet another whom they killed.” (Mark 12:2–5a)
Mark continues by sending “many others”:
These “servants” stand for the prophets sent by God to Israel as referenced by the Old Testament prophets like Isaiah. Though, not explicitly declared in this parable, Matthew later says the following concerning the prophets and the Jewish Peoples attitude:
“Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how many times I yearned to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her young under her wings, but you were unwilling!” (Matthew 23:37)
I don’t think these are very comforting words for those “unwilling” to change their heart toward Jesus’ teachings.
Verse 34 of today’s reading talks about “obtaining his produce”. This is very similar to what Mark relates in his parallel parable:
“At the proper time he sent a servant to the tenants to obtain from them some of the produce of the vineyard.” (Mark 12:2)
The “produce” is the good works demanded by God. His claim to the “produce” is the full amount of good works, to Him, and to ALL His creations.
“Let us kill him and acquire his inheritance.” (Matthew 21:38)
Well, I learned that if a Jewish landowner died without an heir, the “tenants” of his land would have final “quick claim” on it.
Thus, the tenants in today’s parable obviously and dramatically take advantage of the existing law and the landowner’s patience (and perceived weakness). Yet, they drastically underestimated the character of their landowner. They put themselves under a severely just judgment of losing their responsibilities and their own lives when they decided to kill the last messenger, the son of the landowner:
“They seized him, threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him.” (Matthew 21:39)
Mark’s parallel parable has that the “son” is not only killed, but also that his corpse is then thrown out of the vineyard:
“So they seized him [the heir] and killed him, and threw him out of the vineyard.” (Mark 12:8)
The difference, as related in Matthew’s version (the son’s death occurred outside the walls of Jerusalem), may be derived from the first-century Jewish Catholic Church’s strong belief that Jesus Christ suffered and died OUTSIDE the walls of Jerusalem, as also depicted in John’s Gospel and a later letter to the Hebrews:
“Carrying the cross himself he went out to what is called the Place of the Skull, in Hebrew, Golgotha.” John 19:17;
“Therefore, Jesus also suffered outside the gate, to consecrate the people by his own blood.” (Hebrew 13:12).
Matthew goes so far as naming the “religious leaders”: the Pharisees and chief priests in His Gospel. Clearly this shows the extreme tension mounting between Jesus Christ and the Jewish religious leaders who thought Jesus’ ministry and message was dangerous (at least, to them). Matthew’s Gospel was written about 40 years after Jesus’ death and accurately reflects the conflicts and tensions found in the Jewish-Catholic Christian community. Disagreement and dissention in the “Church” was prevalent even in the first-century; definitely not a new phenomenon.
What does Jesus’ parable tell us about God and the way he deals with His people? First, it tells us of God’s generosity and trust. The first-century “vineyard” was usually well equipped with everything the “tenants needed”. The owner went away and left the vineyard in the hands of those tenants, trusting in them. Likewise, God trusts us enough to give us freedom to live life as we choose. This freedom reveals and highlights the importance of free will. This parable also tells us of God’s patience and justice. Not once, but many times does the land owner not only forgive the tenants their “debts”, but also implores them to be honest and do what is right and just. From this, we understand that God the Father also forgives us our debts, when we approach Him and ask for His mercy, and implores us to return to right living, producing good fruits and good work. And, He does this even many, many, many times!!
In Matthew’s version, Jesus then asks the question:
“What will the owner of the vineyard do to those tenants when he comes?” (Matthew 21:40)
“He will put those wretched men to a wretched death and lease his vineyard to other tenants who will give him the produce at the proper times.” (Matthew 21:31).
In saying this, they condemn themselves.
In his version, Matthew further adds the landowner hires “other tenants”. Matthew has Jesus adding God’s management decisions to send other honorable tenants, who will give the landowner the produce at the proper times: when it is at its most mature, most sweet, and most fruitful. God will also “harvest” us at our most mature, most sweet, and most fruitful spiritually! – – By this, Jesus is declaring that God’s will works through every difficulty to ensure a reaping of a great harvest of honorable sons and daughters, filled with the spirit of integrity an honesty.
“The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone. By the LORD has this been done; it is wonderful in our eyes.” (Psalm 118:22–23)
This particular psalm was used in the early Catholic Church as the prophecy of Jesus’ death and resurrection. Both Luke and Peter wrote about this cornerstone, first mentioned in the Old Testament:
“He is ‘the stone rejected by you, the builders, which has become the cornerstone.’” (Acts 4:11);
“Therefore, its value is for you who have faith, but for those without faith: ‘The stone which the builders rejected has become the cornerstone,” (1 Peter 2:7)
The “original” parable (see Mark and Gospel of Thomas mentioned earlier) ended at Matthew 21:39:
“They seized him, threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him.” (Matthew 21:39)
However, Matthew thought necessary to complete the parable by referencing Jesus’ vindication by God:
“Therefore, I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people that will produce its fruit.” (Matthew 21:43)
This final verse from the Gospel reading (verse 43) is only found in Matthew. In this final verse, Matthew says, “kingdom of God”, instead of his usual, “kingdom of heaven”. I believe Matthew’s said “God” instead of “heaven” to indicate it came from his own local church traditional, making it more applicable to his first-century, predominantly Jewish, Catholic (Universal) Church.
The very last words spoken in the Gospel today are, “a people that will produce its fruit”. The people who “will produce fruit”(many riches), are the Israelites AND the Gentiles together, as the Catholic Church of Jesus Christ on earth!! So, what are these fruits, these riches? They are NOT material items. Material (only) riches can be an obstacle to entering God’s kingdom, obstacles which cannot be overcome with our human power and will. Notice, you can’t take “it” (material riches) with you into God’s eternal paradise! Comparing our “need” for earthly and material processions to entering heaven reminds me of an earlier verse from Matthew:
“Then Jesus said to his disciples, ‘Amen, I say to you, it will be hard for one who is rich to enter the kingdom of heaven. Again I say to you, it is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for one who is rich to enter the kingdom of God.’” (Matthew 19:23–24)
Comparing of our entering heaven, with the impossibility of a camel passing through the eye of a needle, is an interesting allegory and image. The “eye of a needle”, in reality, was an actual short or narrow gate in the wall of Jerusalem. This smaller gate was opened after the main gate was closed at night (and staffed by TSA agents). A camel (after taking off its shoes, belt, and emptying its pockets) could only pass through this smaller gate, only if it stooped down low, and had all its baggage removed. A camel could only go through with NO material processions (and after a total body search and x-ray).
We come into this world naked, bare, and procession-less; and we leave this world in nearly the exact same way. The only difference is that we also take with us (attached to our souls) the results of graces, sins, and iniquities we have “harvested” in life. Let me ask, how shiny and well maintained is your soul?
Jesus, in this parable, hints and foretells both His death and His ultimate triumph over death and sin. He knew He would be rejected by His own people and be killed. Still, He also knew He would prevail in the end (please read Psalm 22). After His rejection would come His glory – – the glory of resurrection and the glory of the ascension – – to the right hand of His (and our) Father in heaven.
Jesus continues to bless His people today with the gift of His kingdom on earth and in heaven. He promises that we will bear much fruit, many graces, if we abide in Him and remain faithful to Him as found in John’s Gospel:
“I am the true vine, and my Father is the vine grower. He takes away every branch in me that does not bear fruit, and everyone that does he prunes so that it bears more fruit. You are already pruned because of the word that I spoke to you. Remain in me, as I remain in you. Just as a branch cannot bear fruit on its own unless it remains on the vine, so neither can you unless you remain in me. I am the vine, you are the branches. Whoever remains in me and I in him will bear much fruit, because without me you can do nothing. Anyone who does not remain in me will be thrown out like a branch and wither; people will gather them and throw them into a fire and they will be burned. If you remain in me and my words remain in you, ask for whatever you want and it will be done for you. By this is my Father glorified, that you bear much fruit and become my disciples. As the Father loves me, so I also love you. Remain in my love. If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love, just as I have kept my Father’s commandments and remain in his love. I have told you this so that my joy may be in you and your joy may be complete.” (John 15:1-11).
He entrusts to each and every one of us His gifts, His grace. He gives each of us a particular mission to do in His “vineyard” – – the “body of Christ” – – the Catholic Church. He promises that our labor, especially what we do for Him and for His creations, will not be in vain – – if we persevere with faith, love, and hope till the end:
“Therefore, my beloved brothers, be firm, steadfast, always fully devoted to the work of the Lord, knowing that in the Lord your labor is not in vain.”(1 Corinthians 15:58).
Do you know “the rules” – – personal, profession, relational, and spiritual – – and follow them consistently? Even the most conscientious among us need sometimes to be reminded of the rules and their importance every now and then. How we respond to such reminders and “adjustments” reveals our “true” character in oneself and in society. In today’s Gospel Jesus reproaches the religious leaders and elders for their failure to heed God’s messengers, the prophets. At this moment, you have an opportunity to consider how you respond to those who are God’s messengers, those who are calling us to adjust our paths in life, and to return to the path leading to our Lord Jesus Christ, the path of faith, of living hope, and of abiding love.
What are some of God’s “rules” that we must follow? There is a rule book for the Catholic faith: the “Catechism of the Catholic Church”. Have you ever read one? Have you ever seen one? Get one, and become informed.
Today’s Gospel reminds us of the importance of listening to God’s “word”. Our Trinitarian God speaks to us in many ways: through Holy Scripture, through the Sacraments (God’s word in action), through our Church traditions and teachings, and through modern-day prophets and visionaries (those Church approved). We should be attentive and receptive to God’s “word” – – to us – – through these various “messengers”?
How do we respond to God’s messengers today? How should we respond to God’s messengers today? Pray that you will always pay attention to God’s messengers and follow God’s ways. Let’s start with the “Act of Contrition” for the times when we have not listened to God’s word.
We can (and probably should) expect trials and difficulties as we labor for our Lord Jesus Christ, in doing our daily responsibilities. We should even expect persecution from those who directly and indirectly oppose God’s kingdom on earth – – JESUS DID!. I believe this is happening “right now” in our secularized and polarized society. Being a true, practicing Catholic is not politically correct in the present United States of America!
Just remember, in the end, we will see triumph in, through, and with Jesus Christ. Question: Do you labor for, – – work for, – – search for, Jesus Christ – – in all endeavors – – with a joyful hope and confidence in His (and YOURS) ultimate victory? (GO team “God”, GO team “God”!! Rah, Rah, Rah, God Is Mine! God is Fine! God is Divine! God is “the vine”! God is Thine!)
“Act of Contrition”
“O my God, I am heartily sorry for having offended Thee, and I detest all my sins, because I dread the loss of heaven, and the pains of hell; but most of all because they offend Thee, my God, Who are all good and deserving of all my love. I firmly resolve, with the help of Thy grace, to confess my sins, to do penance, and to amend my life. Amen.”
Pax et Bonum
Dan Halley, SFO
In November of 2011, with the start of the new Liturgical year and Advent, there will be a few noticeable changes in the Mass. It will still be the same ritual for celebrating the Eucharist. The Mass will still have the same parts, the same patterns, and the same flow as it has had for the past several decades. It is only the translation of the Latin that is changing.
The new translation seeks to correspond much more closely to the exact words and sentence structure of the Latin text. At times, this results in a good and faithful rendering of the original meaning. At other times it produces a rather awkward text in English which is difficult to proclaim and difficult to understand. Most of those problems affect the texts which priests will proclaim rather than the texts that belong to the congregation as a whole. It is to the congregation’s texts that I will address with each blog, in a repetitive basis until the start of Advent.
In the words of Vatican II’s Lumen Gentium, #11, the Eucharist is the “source and summit” of Christian life. Anything we can do to understand our liturgy more deeply will draw us closer to God.
A big change occurs in the text of the “Creed” (Our “Profession of Faith”). The first obvious change is with the very first word. Currently we begin with “We believe.” The new, revised text has “I believe” instead of “We”.
Another noticeable change comes in the tenth line, regarding the Son’s divinity. We currently say Jesus is “one in being with the Father.” The new text will now say Jesus is “consubstantial with the Father.”
Consubstantial is not really a translation. In reality, It is a transliteration—the same Latin word, spelled in English— of the Latin “consubstantialis”, which literally means “one in being.” Translation versus transliteration is not the point. The point is that Jesus is God, one with the Father, co-equal and co-eternal.
A third noticeable change occurs in how we speak of Christ’s human nature. We currently say, “by the power of the Holy Spirit he was born of the Virgin Mary and became man.” The new text will now say, “and by the Holy Spirit was incarnate of the Virgin Mary and became man.”
Incarnate means “made flesh.” So, using the term here reminds us that he was human from the moment of His conception and not just at His birth.
There are several other minor changes in the text of the “Creed” (new version is shown below). It will certainly take us some time to commit the new version to memory, and to be able to profess it together easily.
The new missal also allows the option of using the “Apostles’ Creed” instead of this version of the “Nicene Creed”, especially during Lent and Easter. The “Apostles’ Creed” is another ancient Christian creed, long used by Roman Catholics in our baptismal promises and at the beginning of the Rosary.
“The Nicene/Constantinople Creed”
(Based on the original Latin versions from the Councils
of Nicea (AD 325) and Constantinople (AD 381).
I believe in one God,
the Father almighty,
maker of heaven and earth,
of all things visible and invisible.
I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ,
the Only Begotten Son of God,
born of the Father before all ages.
God from God, Light from Light,
true God from true God,
begotten, not made, consubstantial
with the Father;
through him all things were made.
For us men and for our salvation
he came down from heaven,
and by the Holy Spirit was incarnate
of the Virgin Mary, and became man.
For our sake he was crucified under
he suffered death and was buried,
and rose again on the third day
in accordance with the Scriptures.
He ascended into heaven
and is seated at the right hand of the Father.
He will come again in glory
to judge the living and the dead
and his kingdom will have no end.
I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord,
the giver of life,
who proceeds from the Father and the Son,
who with the Father and the Son
is adored and glorified,
who has spoken through the prophets.
I believe in one, holy, catholic and
I confess one baptism for the
forgiveness of sins
and I look forward to the
resurrection of the dead
and the life of the world to come.
Material from “Changing How We Pray”, by Rev. Lawrence E. Mick
Perhaps no aspect of Catholic piety is as comforting to parents as the belief that an angel protects their little ones from dangers real and imagined. Yet guardian angels are not just for children. Their role is to represent individuals before God, to watch over them always, to aid their prayer and to present their souls to God at death.
The concept of an angel assigned to guide and nurture each human being is a development of Catholic doctrine and piety based on Scripture but not directly drawn from it. Jesus’ words in Matthew 18:10 best support the belief: “See that you do not despise one of these little ones, for I say to you that their angels in heaven always look upon the face of my heavenly Father.”
Devotion to the angels began to develop with the birth of the monastic tradition. St. Benedict (July 11) gave it impetus and Bernard of Clairvaux (August 20), the great 12th-century reformer, was such an eloquent spokesman for the guardian angels that angelic devotion assumed its current form in his day.
A feast in honor of the guardian angels was first observed in the 16th century. In 1615, Pope Paul V added it to the Roman calendar.
Devotion to the angels is, at base, an expression of faith in God’s enduring love and providential care extended to each person day in and day out until life’s end.
“May the angels lead you into paradise;
may the martyrs come to welcome you
and take you to the holy city,
the new and eternal Jerusalem.” (Rite for Christian Burial)
Saint of the Day: Lives, Lessons and Feast
By Leonard Foley, O.F.M.;
revised by Pat McCloskey, O.F.M.
(From http://www.americancatholic.org website)
“Saint Francis and the Sacraments”
How “Catholic” would you consider Saint Francis?
What behavior does Saint Francis request of us regarding the Eucharist and the Sacred Scripture?
Saint Francis addresses some of his brothers as “priest brothers”. What does this say of his reverence for his brothers who have been ordained with the Sacrament of the Priesthood?
In praying the “Office” (Prayer of the Church) Saint Francis tells the friars that their HEARTS must be in it (Omn.p.107). What did Saint Francis mean by this statement?
How prominent a role did the Catholic Church and her practices, such as the Sacraments, play in Saint Francis’ beliefs, teachings, and actions?
2. The Secular Franciscan Order holds a special place in this family circle. It is an organic union of all Catholic fraternities scattered throughout the world and open to every group of the faithful. In these fraternities the brothers and sisters, led by the Spirit, strive for perfect charity in their own secular state. By their profession they pledge themselves to live the gospel in the manner of Saint Francis by means of this rule approved by the Church.
3. The present rule, succeeding “Memoriale Propositi” (1221) and the rules approved by the Supreme Pontiffs Nicholas IV and Leo XIII, adapts the Secular Franciscan Order to the needs and expectations of the Holy Church in the conditions of changing times. Its interpretation belongs to the Holy See and its application will be made by the General Constitutions and particular statutes.