The Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ the King
Last Sunday of Ordinary Time for Liturgical Year
- Dan’s Deliberations, Discoveries, & Declarations
- Today in Catholic History
- Quote of the Day
- Today’s Gospel Reading
- Gospel Reflection
- Reflection Prayer
- New Translation of the Mass
- A Franciscan’s Saint of the Day
- Franciscan Formation Reflection
- Reflection on part of the SFO Rule
One week to the beginning of the Advent Season. What are your plans to make this Advent personally special and more faith fulfilling for you? Let me know.
† 284 – Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor.
† 1168 – Giovanni di Struma elected “anti-Pope”
† 1342 – Pope Clemens VI names John IV of Arkel as Bishop of Utrecht
† 1437 – Death of Thomas Langley, bishop of Durham, cardinal and lord chancellor; excommunicated, reinstated by anti-pope John XXIII (b. 1363)
† 1529 – Death of Karl von Miltitz, papal nuncio to Germany and envoy of Pope Leo X to Martin Luther
† 1621 – Birth of Avvakum, Russian priest and writer (d. 1682)
† 1761 – Birth of Pope Pius VIII, [Francesco S Castiglioni], Italy, 253rd Pope (1829-30)
† 1778 – Death of Francesco Cetti, Italian Jesuit Jesuit priest, zoologist and mathematician (b. 1726)
† 1890 – Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical on slavery in missions
† 1934 – Birth of Valentine J Peter, Omaha Nebraska, priest (Boy’s Town 1985- )
† 1942 – Birth of Paulos Faraj Rahho, Iraqi Chaldean Catholic Bishop (d. 2008)
† 1947 – Pope Pius XII publishes encyclical “Mediator Dei”, suggesting new directions and active participation instead of a merely passive role of the faithful in the liturgy, in liturgical ceremonies and in the life of their parish.
(From the “On This Day” Blog Site
“Today in Catholic History”
“Every time a parent and child ‘express their love and care for one another,’ wherever that may happen, our world has become a little more perfect.” ~ Chris Lowney, “Heroic Living”, Loyola Press
Today’s reflection is about Jesus teaching that when the Son of Man comes in glory, He will judge the nations, separating the sheep from the goats. (Judgment of Nations)
(NAB Matthew 25:31-46) 31“When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, he will sit upon his glorious throne, 32 and all the nations will be assembled before him. And he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 33He will place the sheep on his right and the goats on his left. 34Then the king will say to those on his right, ‘Come, you who are blessed by my Father. Inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. 35 For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, a stranger and you welcomed me, 36naked and you clothed me, ill and you cared for me, in prison and you visited me.’ 37Then the righteous* will answer him and say, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry and feed you, or thirsty and give you drink? 38When did we see you a stranger and welcome you, or naked and clothe you? 39When did we see you ill or in prison, and visit you?’ 40 And the king will say to them in reply, ‘Amen, I say to you, whatever you did for one of these least brothers of mine, you did for me.’ 41 Then he will say to those on his left, ‘Depart from me, you accursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels. 42 For I was hungry and you gave me no food, I was thirsty and you gave me no drink, 43a stranger and you gave me no welcome, naked and you gave me no clothing, ill and in prison, and you did not care for me.’ 44 Then they will answer and say, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or ill or in prison, and not minister to your needs?’ 45He will answer them, ‘Amen, I say to you, what you did not do for one of these least ones, you did not do for me.’ 46 And these will go off to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life.”
Today’s Gospel passage is the conclusion of Jesus’ teaching discourse with His disciples. The topic is about the “end of time”, – – the coming of the Son of Man, – – and the Final Judgment: the “Parousia”. We are hearing today, this description of this “changing” event, at the conclusion of our present liturgical year, “the Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ the King”. Next week starts a new Liturgical year in the Catholic Church (Cycle “B’, using Mark’s Gospel predominately). With the ending of Matthew’s Gospel, today’s passage might also be read as a wrapping up of Matthew’s account and testimony on Jesus’ life and ministry as well. The remaining chapters go on to tell the events of Jesus’ Passion and Resurrection.
Do you remember last Sunday’s parable of “the Talents”? It goes along with today’s narrative. The “Talents” parable, along with today’s reading, teaches us that the gifts and graces we have been given are intended to be used for the service of others, especially the least among us. Our final judgment before God will be based not only on how we have used these gifts and talents, but also on how we have extended ourselves in service to these least ones of His creations. In fact, Jesus tells us that whenever we have served “these least ones”, we have served Jesus Christ Himself. How awesome is that fact!! (As much as we might like to judge the parables, the parables, nonetheless, judge us as well.)
Today’s narrative of Jesus, which is distinctive only to Matthew’s Gospel, portrays the “Final Judgment” that will accompany the “Parousia”. Although most people call today’s reading a “parable,” it really isn’t a parable, per se. The only elements of a parable are the 1) depiction of the “Son of Man” as a “shepherd”, and 2) of the “righteous” and the “wicked” as “sheep” and “goats” respectively (Matthew 25:32–33).
In today’s reading, Jesus describes to His disciples the scene of the Final Judgment of the “Son of Man”, Jesus Christ. “All the nations” will be assembled before Him, and He will separate them as a shepherd separates sheep and goats upon their return from the pasture. The “Final Judgments” made by Jesus Christ, will be based upon the acts of mercy shown to the least ones: the hungry, the thirsty, the naked, the ill, and the imprisoned. Without a doubt, Jesus Himself, – – who suffered through His scourging, and who died a painful death on the Holy Cross, – – identified (and still identifies) Himself with the “least ones” of His flock. The decisive factor of “judgment” will be the deeds of mercy that have been done for the least of Jesus’ brothers (Matthew 25:40).
A difficult and important question is how we identify these “least brothers”. Are they “all people” who have suffered hunger, thirst, etc. (Matthew 25:35-36) or a particular group of such sufferers? Bible scholars even seem to be divided in their response to this question. Arguments can be realistically made for either side of the question. For me, it seems a stronger case can be made for Matthew’s view being that the sufferers are his “Christians”, and probably Christian the missionaries whose sufferings were the result of their preaching of the Gospel. The measurable criterion of judgment for “all the nations” (verse 32) is revealed by their treatment of those who have heard the message of Jesus Christ, and their ultimate acceptance or rejection of Jesus Christ Himself:
“Whoever receives you receives me, and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me.” (Matthew 10:40).
“This Gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the world as a witness to all nations, and then the end will come.” (Matthew 24:14).
Wow! This means the “Gentiles and Samaritans” will be judged on their response to His “Word” as well. The phrase “all the nations” includes the Jewish people AND non-Jewish peoples who will be brought to His throne at the “Final Judgment”:
“For the Son of Man will come with his angels in his Father’s glory, and then he will repay everyone according to his conduct.” (Mt 16:27).
“Depart from me, you accursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels.” (Matthew 25:41)
The “accursed” (Matthew 25:41) – -the “goats” of today’s reading, will be surprised and dumbfounded that their neglect of “the sufferers” was also – – at the same time – – neglect of the Lord Jesus Christ Himself. Furthermore, they will receive – – from Jesus Christ Himself – – a similar response at the “Final Judgment”: separation from His kingdom.
Jesus’ story about the separation of goats and sheep must have unsettled His audience, nearly everyone either being shepherds or related in some way to shepherds. In the barren and parched lands of Palestine, goats and sheep often grazed together during the day because green pasture was sparse indeed. These animals were only separated at night, as goats apparently need shelter. Goats were also less submissive and meek; more often “on edge” than sheep are. Goats even came to symbolize evil, and the expression “scapegoat” has become a common expression for someone who is made to take the blame for others.
There is even an Old Testament passage eluding to this “scapegoat” expression, and of the ritual expulsion of the “sin-bearing” goat on the Jewish “Day of Atonement” (Yom Kippur):
“When he has finished purging the inner sanctuary, the tent of meeting and the altar, Aaron shall bring forward the live goat. Laying both hands on its head, he shall confess over it all the iniquities of the Israelites and their trespasses, including all their sins, and so put them on the goat’s head. He shall then have it led into the wilderness by an attendant. The goat will carry off all their iniquities to an isolated region.” (Leviticus 16:20-22)
Jesus is telling us that separation is an inevitable consequence of His judgment. The Day of “Final Judgment” will reveal who showed true compassion and mercy toward their neighbor (the sheep), and those who have not (the goat).
At any banquet of Jesus’ time, the preferred place of honor was ALWAYS to the right of the host. In today’s reading, the “sheep” will be placed in the place of honor at God’s heavenly banquet. This expression of the “place of honor” can be seen throughout Holy Scripture, and medieval art. In the famous painting of the last supper, Simon Peter was immediately to the right of Jesus. St. Dismas, the good thief, is shown crucified to the right of Jesus Christ. And Jesus’ throne in Heaven is to the right of God the Father:
“From this time on the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God.” (Luke 22:69)
This right hand “place of honor” is so important of a position that ONLY God the Father can grant such a place hold:
“My cup you will indeed drink, but to sit at my right and at my left [, this] is not mine to give but is for those for whom it has been prepared by my Father.” (Matthew 20:23)
So, what are we to “DO” to gain entrance to His kingdom? Jesus gives more than a hint in verse 35-36:
“For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, a stranger and you welcomed me, naked and you clothed me, ill and you cared for me, in prison and you visited me.” (Matthew 25:35-36)
The Church calls the actions that Jesus described in today’s Gospel the “Corporal Works of Mercy”. These works are:
- Feed the hungry
- Give drink to the thirsty
- Clothe the naked
- Shelter the homeless
- Visit the sick
- Visit those in prison
- Bury the dead
The “righteous” will be amazed to know that in caring for the needs of “sufferers”, they were actually ministering to the Lord Jesus Christ Himself as well. We have to remember the famous verse from Matthew 10:
“Whoever gives only a cup of cold water to one of these little ones to drink because he is a disciple—amen, I say to you, he will surely not lose his reward.” (Matthew 10:42).
Jesus Christ is going even further in saying:
“Amen, I say to you, whatever you did for one of these least brothers of mine, you did for me.” (Matthew 25:40)
Not only are we to see Jesus in all who we meet, we also “DO” to Jesus whatever we “DO” to each and every person we see. Hmm, what does that mean when you curse at someone, “flip the bird” at another, or do something immoral or inappropriate toward a neighbor, friend, or family member? (You know the answer!)
Jesus is teaching us a very important lesson about loving our neighbor and taking responsibility for others as a role we should endeavor in as faithful Catholics. God will judge us not only for the wrong we have done, but also for what we have failed to do!!
Verse 41 of today’s reading has a scary and prophetic message for all of us, especially the “goats” among us. I personally do not like the hot weather of St. Louis summers, so this image of a “fiery” hell truly scares me. This image scared the Jewish people as well. 1 Enoch 10:13 (an ancient Jewish religious work, traditionally attributed to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah) says of the evil angels and their leader:
“When their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgment and of their consummation, till the judgment that is forever and ever is consummated. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined forever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all.” (1 Enoch 10:12-14)
I highly recommend a book titled, “23 minutes in Hell”, written by Bill Wiese. It is an extremely eye opening personal account of someone given the “grace” of being placed at the entrance to hell for a very short period. Not an enjoyable “read”, but well worth the time. It may literally scare “the hell” out of you!!
Is there an example of how to live this “doing” to others? Well, when Saint Martin of Tours, a young Roman soldier from the 4th century AD, met an unclothed man begging for alms in the freezing cold, he did an unbelievable thing for that time period. He stopped at the man, cut his coat in two, and gave half to the stranger. That night he dreamt he saw the heavenly court with Jesus robed in a torn cloak. One of the angels asked Jesus, “Master, why do you wear that battered cloak?” Jesus replied, “My servant ‘Martin’ gave it to me.” Martin’s disciple and biographer, Sulpicius Severus, states that as a consequence of this vision, Martin “flew to be baptized”.
In the chapters that follow, in Matthew’s Gospel, we learn the great and boundless extent to which Jesus Christ identifies with the least ones; to the point of giving up His life for the least among us. In accepting a horrible and excruciating death on the cross, Jesus Christ shows Himself to be one of the hungry, the naked, the ill, and the imprisoned. To accept Jesus IS to accept Him – – who suffered and died on the Cross –as one of the least ones.
To conclude, in today’s Gospel, Jesus teaches us that we will be judged on only one thing: one’s acts of mercy, which we have shown to the least among us. Knowing the answers will not suffice; “DOING” the answers is all that counts!! Jesus identifies with the least ones; thus we serve Him whenever we serve one of the least ones!! In these actions, these “Corporal Works of Mercy”, we show God’s compassion and mercy to those “least one’s” in need of faith, hope, and love.
God’s boundless love compels us to treat others with mercy and kindness. When we do something for one of Christ’s least and marginalized ones, we do it for Christ Himself. Do you treat your neighbor with mercy and love – – as Jesus Christ has treated you?
Reread the list of the “Corporal Works of Mercy” mentioned earlier. What are some concrete examples of how you might “DO” these actions in your community? Why is it important that we “DO” these things, especially for others? Why does Jesus say we ought to – – need to – – DO these works of mercy? (The answer is simply because whenever we show mercy to another person, we are also showing mercy to Jesus himself.) Choose one “Corporal Work of Mercy” to “DO” this week; then add to it each week. Pray that you will always see, and always serve, Jesus Christ in the least and marginalized ones among us.
“Act of Love”
In November of 2011, with the start of the new Liturgical year and Advent, there will be a few noticeable changes in the Mass. It will still be the same ritual for celebrating the Eucharist. The Mass will still have the same parts, the same patterns, and the same flow as it has had for the past several decades. It is only the translation of the Latin that is changing.
The new translation seeks to correspond much more closely to the exact words and sentence structure of the Latin text. At times, this results in a good and faithful rendering of the original meaning. At other times it produces a rather awkward text in English which is difficult to proclaim and difficult to understand. Most of those problems affect the texts which priests will proclaim rather than the texts that belong to the congregation as a whole. It is to the congregation’s texts that I will address with each blog, in a repetitive basis until the start of Advent.
In the words of Vatican II’s Lumen Gentium, #11, the Eucharist is the “source and summit” of Christian life. Anything we can do to understand our liturgy more deeply will draw us closer to God.
The Glory to God (Gloria) has been significantly changed, with more words and many lines rearranged.
Glory to God in the highest,
and on earth peace to people of good will.
We praise you,
we bless you,
we adore you,
we glorify you,
we give you thanks for your great glory,
Lord God, heavenly King,
O God, almighty Father.
Lord Jesus Christ, Only Begotten Son,
Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father,
you take away the sins of the world,
have mercy on us;
you take away the sins of the world,
receive our prayer;
you are seated at the right hand of the father,
have mercy on us.
For you alone are the Holy One.
you alone are the Lord,
you alone are the Most High,
with the Holy Spirit,
in the Glory of God the Father.
Material from “Changing How We Pray”, by Rev. Lawrence E. Mick
Archbishop of Canterbury England, who battled for discipline and justice, also called Edmund of Abingdon. Edmund was born in Abingdon, Oxfordshire on November 30, 1180. He studied at Oxford, England, and also in Paris, France. He taught art and mathematics at Oxford and was eventually ordained to the priesthood.
He spent eight years teaching theology and became Canon and treasurer of Salisbury Cathedral. An eloquent speaker, Edmund preached a crusade for Pope Gregory IX and was named archbishop of Canterbury. He became an advisor to King Henry III and presided in 1237 at Henry’s ratification of the Great Charter. When Cardinal Olt became a papal legate with the patronage of King Henry, Edmund protested.
A long-lasting feud between Edmund, the king, and his legate led him to resigning his See in 1240. He went to Pontigny, France, where he became a Cistercian Priest. He died at Soissons, on November 16, 1240. Edmund was canonized in 1246 or 1247. A hall in Oxford still bears his name.
Patron of: Abingdon, Oxfordshire; Roman Catholic Diocese of Portsmouth; St Edmund’s College, Cambridge
Information from Wikipedia
“Saint Francis and His Message”
If Saint Francis were writing a letter to your local SFO Fraternity, what do you think he would include in that letter? – Make a list.
Using this idea, can you make up a letter from Saint Francis to your Fraternity?
What inspiration(s) have you found in the letters of St. Francis? (If you haven’t. you should.)
20. The Secular Franciscan Order is divided into fraternities of various levels — local, regional, national, and international. Each one has its own moral personality in the Church. These various fraternities are coordinated and united according to the norm of this rule and of the constitutions.
21. On various levels, each fraternity is animated and guided by a council and minister who are elected by the professed according to the constitutions.
Their service, which lasts for a definite period, is marked by a ready and willing spirit and is a duty of responsibility to each member and to the community.
Within themselves the fraternities are structured in different ways according to the norm of the constitutions, according to the various needs of their members and their regions, and under the guidance of their respective council.