in Ordinary Time
- Dan’s Deliberations, Discoveries, & Declarations
- Today in Catholic History
- Quote of the Day
- Today’s Gospel Reading
- Gospel Reflection
- Reflection Prayer
- New Translation of the Mass
- A Franciscan’s Saint of the Day
- Franciscan Formation Reflection
- Reflection on part of the SFO Rule
Dan’s Deliberations, Discoveries, & Declarations:
Popes Prayer Intentions for September
Our Holy Father, Pope Benedict XVI, asks that we join him in prayer for the “concrete problems that trouble the Universal Church, especially those of the missions.” These are our Holy Father’s prayer intentions for September:
That all teachers may know how to communicate love of the truth and instill authentic moral and spiritual values.
That the Christian communities of Asia may proclaim the Gospel with fervor, witnessing to its beauty with the joy of faith.
Today in Catholic History:
† 422 – St Boniface I ends his reign as Catholic Pope
† 1085 – Death of Irmgarde van Keulen, German countess of Aspel/saint
† 1571 – Catholic coup in Scotland
† 1781 – Los Angeles, California, is founded as El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora La Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula (the City of Our Lady, the Queen of the Angels of the Little Portion) by 44 Spanish settlers.
† 1918 – Jhr Ch Ruys de Beerenbrouck, Jhr. Charles Joseph Maria Ruijs de Beerenbrouck (1 December 1873 – 17 April 1936) was a Dutch nobleman and Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1918 to 1925 and again from 1929 to 1933, who becomes 1st Dutch Catholic premier
(From the “On This Day” Blog Site
“Today in Catholic History”
Quote of the Day:
“A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger.” ~ Proverbs 15:1
Today’s reflection is about Jesus teaching His disciples how to settle disputes in the Church.
(NAB Matthew 18:15-20) 15 “If your brother sins [against you], go and tell him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have won over your brother. 16 If he does not listen, take one or two others along with you, so that ‘every fact may be established on the testimony of two or three witnesses.’ 17 If he refuses to listen to them, tell the church. If he refuses to listen even to the church, then treat him as you would a Gentile or a tax collector. 18 Amen, I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 19 Again, [amen,] I say to you, if two of you agree on earth about anything for which they are to pray, it shall be granted to them by my heavenly Father. 20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.”
What’s the best way to repair a damaged relationship? Jesus offers His disciples a special grace of spiritual freedom and power for restoring the broken or injured relationships within His faith community. He makes it very clear that His followers should not tolerate a break, infringement, or outright violation in relationships among themselves.
This reading gives direction to the actions of Jesus Christ’s reputable disciples toward those who have strayed from their teachings and practices. Today’s discourse is the “how-to” for dealing with someone who sins, and yet continues within the community (Sort of like many of our present day Catholic Legislators). Them, and many others in the Catholic Church today are “Catholics Only In Name”: “COINs”!!
Today’s Gospel is taken from a part of Matthew’s book which is sometimes called the “discourse on the Church” or the “church order discourse”. In this section of Matthew’s Gospel, Jesus speaks more directly, openly, and frankly about Catholic (Universal) Church discipline and Church order.
Today’s reading is only one of two instances wherein Jesus uses the word “church” in Matthew’s Gospel. In Matthew’s record of Jesus’ “Word” and teachings, we can also hear and experience reverberations of the kinds of questions and problems faced by the first-century Catholic Christian community for whom he wrote.
Not in today’s reading, but found immediately prior to this reading (Matthew 18:1-14), is the first part of the “discourse on the Church“. Matthew addresses the Catholic Christian community’s concern about hierarchy. In this previous “first” part, Jesus responds to the disciples’ question about who is greatest in the kingdom of heaven. His response indicated that those who wish to enter the kingdom of heaven must be like children!! He further cautioned the “church leaders” who might lead His disciples going astray – – off path of salvation, by accident or purposely.
Next is today’s part, the second section of Jesus’ “discourse on the Church”, Matthew 18:15-20. Here, Jesus addresses a very common occurrence in the early Christian community: a dispute between two or more members of His Catholic Church.
Sin must be confronted, and help must be offered, in restoring a damaged personal or communal relationship of love, trust, and faith. When these relationships between brothers and sisters of Christ are damaged, then we must spare no effort; we must use all resources – – human and divine – – to help the brother or sister “at fault” to see their error, and to set the relationship “just and righteous” again.
Regardless of the decision in dealing with one in error, the church’s judgment will be ratified in heaven – – by God the Father Himself. The three-step process of rectification in today’s reading relates (though not exactly) to the Qumran community procedures found in the Dead Sea Scrolls (see 1QS 5:25–6:1; 6:24–7:25; CD 9:2–8).
In the conclusion of today’s reading, Jesus ends with a proverb about the favorable response of God to prayer, even to a very small number of prayers (Hope hopeful is this!!). Jesus Christ is always in “the midst” of any gathering of His disciples, no matter how small.
After reading and reflecting on this Gospel reading multiple times, I wonder whether this context of prayer, as portrayed in today’s reading, has anything to do with the preceding judgment of the unrepentant sinner. It seems uncertain in context, but not in concept. Let’s see what I say about this, in detail, later.
Jesus outlines a procedure for settling such matters in a fair way; a procedure which continues, in a very similar form, to this day. First, the victim should privately address the offender and attempt to resolve the dispute without outside involvement. If this fails, then the victim should bring two or three witnesses and confront – – in a loving manner – – the “offender” again. If the dispute is still unresolved, the matter should be brought to the attention of the entire church community.
Finally, and sadly, if the offender refuses to adhere to the restoration arranged by and approved by the church community, then Jesus Christ Himself suggests the “offender” may be expelled from the Church, – – “excommunicated”.
Jesus starts His discourse with a profound and heavily-laden theological sentence:
“If your brother sins [against you], go and tell him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have won over your brother.” (Matthew 18:15)
“Your brother”, from verse 15, is the colloquial term for a Catholic Christians fellow disciple in Christ.
“As for you, do not be called ‘Rabbi.’ You have but one teacher, and you are all brothers.” (Matthew 23:8).
The bracketed words, “against you”, (also in verse 15) are words widely attested to in many versions of Holy Scripture. However, they are not in the ancient manuscript texts, “Sinaiticus” and “Vaticanus”, nor in some other written documents. Their omission in these important documents only broadens the type of sin in question to ANY type of sin!
Still in verse 15, “Won over” literally means “gained.” Saying, “we won over this person”, means this person has come too understood, and corrected his fault. In doing so, he has gained his own personal insight, and, at the same time, you gain a friend and companion on your faith journey.
“One witness alone shall not stand against someone in regard to any crime or any offense that may have been committed; a charge shall stand only on the testimony of two or three witnesses.” (Deuteronomy 19:15)
What is meant by the word “church” (verse 17) in this reading? The words, “the church” is the second of the only two instances of this specific word in Matthew’s Gospel; the other being Matthew 16:18:
“I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it.” (Matthew 16:18).
Here, it refers not to the entire church of Jesus Christ, as in Matthew 16:18, but instead, to the local congregation instead.
Also in verse 17, what did Jesus mean when He said, “treat him as you would a Gentile or a tax collector”? Well, history shows that in first-century Palestine, observant and pious Jews avoided any interaction with “Gentiles” and “tax collectors” – – “heathen sinners”!! In the same way, Catholic Jewish-Christian disciples of this biblical time also had to separate themselves from the arrogantly un-repented, sinful member who refused to repent, even when convicted of his sin by the whole church (his brothers and sisters in Christ). This person was (and still is) to be put outside the fellowship of the Catholic Church community; he or she is “ex–community-cated”.
The harsh language about Gentile and tax collector points to a stage in Matthew’s first-century Catholic (Universal) Church, wherein, it was principally composed of Jewish Christians. Though this period of a “Jewish-only” Catholic Church has long since passed, the principle of exclusion (including the severest form, excommunication) for such a sinner remains to this day, and has spread from Matthew’s local church, to the entire worldwide church community. Saint Paul even made a similar demand for excommunication in his first letter to the Corinthians (Corinthians 5:1-13), in regards to incest and pride:
“It is widely reported that there is immorality among you, and immorality of a kind not found even among pagans—a man living with his father’s wife. And you are inflated with pride. Should you not rather have been sorrowful? The one who did this deed should be expelled from your midst.” (1 Corinthians 5:1–2).
Saint Augustine of Hippo comments on Jesus’ instruction (and if anyone knew about sin, he did!!):
“When any one sins against us, let us take great care, not for ourselves, for it is a glorious thing to forget injuries; only forget thine own injury, not thy brother’s wound. Therefore ‘rebuke him between thee and him alone,’ intent upon his amendment, but sparing his shame. For it may be that through shamefacedness he will begin to defend his sin, and so thou wilt make him whom thou desirest to amend, still worse. ‘Rebuke him’ therefore ‘between him and thee alone. If he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother;’ because he would have been lost, hadst thou not done it. But ‘if he: will not hear thee,’ that is, if he will defend his sin as if it were a just action, ‘take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established; and if he will not hear them, refer it to the Church; but if he will not hear the Church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican.’ Reckon him no more amongst the number of thy brethren. But yet neither is his salvation on that account to be neglected. For the very heathen, that is, the Gentiles and Pagans, we do not reckon among the number of brethren; but yet are we ever seeking their salvation.” (Sermon 82.7)
What can we learn from today’s reading, along with the above passage from St. Augustine, about how to repair a damaged relationship?
If you feel you have been wronged by someone, Jesus Christ says the first step is to speak directly, yet privately, to the individual who has done you harm. The worst thing one can do is dwell on any grievance, poisoning the mind, heart and soul. Retaining grievances (resentment) makes it more difficult to go directly to the person who caused the damage. If we truly want to settle a difference with someone, we need to do it “face-to-face” and “heart-to-heart”.
If this fails to resolve the issue, then the second step is to bring another person (or persons) to help in the “repair of the relationship”. This “witness” should be mature, wise, and compassionate person rather than someone who may be equally hot-tempered and/or judgmental. Remember, the goal is not to put the “offender” on trial, but to persuade the “offender” to see his error, and to be reconciled with each other (and the church).
If this loving (and second) interaction fails, we still must not give up. Instead we should seek the help of the entire Catholic Christian community – – the “Church”. Notice the emphasis and importance is on restoring a broken relationship by seeking the help of other Catholics, who will pray, seeking a solution for reconciling the matter, based on Christian love and wisdom rather than relying on coercive force, threats, and legal action.
Lastly, if the church fails to bring about reconciliation, what else is there to do? Jesus Christ says we have the right to abandon stubborn and inflexible offenders, treating them like social outcasts.
The tax-collectors and Gentiles were regarded as “unclean” by the religiously pious Jews. However, we know from Holy Scripture that Jesus was often a companion and friend of tax-collectors; He ate with them, and even praised them at times! Even if excommunicated, we should always hope and pray for a conversion of heart in the “offender”, and reconciliation with the church family.
Jesus does not discourage, in any way, disagreements within the Church community. After all, being human in nature, disagreements are inevitable. He even acknowledged the reality of conflict and error in our world, and offers His disciples a specific, respectful, and loving means for addressing such matters.
I love what Blessed Archbishop Fulton Sheen had said about disagreeing with the “infallible teachings” of the Magisterium:
“You have two choices if you disagree with the Church’s infallible teachings:
1) Change your mind, or
2) Change your mind!!”
“I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” (Matthew 18:18)
Except for the use of both singular and plural verbs for “bind” and “loose” in verse 18, it is practically identical with Mathew 16:19b:
“Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” (Mathew 16:19b).
It is in the conclusion to today’s reading (verses 19 & 20) that a great message of hope is found: Jesus is “truly” present with the Catholic Church community, and will guide His Church community in its relationships. If decisions are taken to Him in prayer, then His church community can be assured of the Holy Trinity’s assistance.
Some bible scholars take verses 19 and 20 as relating to “prayer” when the church community gathers in order to deal with the specific un-repentant sinner of verse 17.
“If he refuses to listen to them, tell the church. If he refuses to listen even to the church, then treat him as you would a Gentile or a tax collector.” (Matthew 18:17).
Unless an “a fortiori” argument (argument “from [the] stronger [reason]”) is assumed, this seems unlikely to me. After all, God’s answer to the prayer of “two or three” (as stated in both verse 19 AND 20) envisions a different situation than prayer involving the entire church body (the congregation). In addition to this argument for a separate meaning and purpose, the object of “prayer” in today’s reading is expressed in the most general of terms, as it expresses “anything for which they are to pray”, and is not specific to the un-repentant sinner.
However, this last verse of today’s great message is one of “hope inspired by a grace”, from Jesus Christ Himself:
His presence guarantees the value, merit, and importance of prayer. This verse is similar to one attributed to an unknown Rabbi, executed in 135 A.D., at the time of the second Jewish revolt:
“…When two sit and there are between them the words of the Torah, the divine presence (Shekinah) rests upon them” (Pirqê ’Abôt 3:3).
In conclusion, conflict and disagreements are a natural part of family, church, and societal life. Yet, within these groups, we are given an opportunity to learn how to “fairly” resolve disagreements by treating people with love and respect.
It needs to be reiterated, Jesus Christ refuses NO ONE who is ready to receive pardon, healing, and restoration. A call to accountability is inevitable, and we can’t escape it, both in this life, and at the “Day of Judgment” (the “Parousia”) when our Lord Jesus Christ will return.
Do you tolerate broken relationships? Or, do you seek to repair, restore, and amend relationships in the way God gives you, through opportunity and His grace given process? While we have the opportunity to do so in this life, we must not give up on our stubborn, inflexible, “offenders”. Instead, take every opportunity and make all effort to win them back into the fold – – with, in, and through the grace and power of God’s healing love and wisdom.
This week, reflect on your way of resolving disputes at work, and at home. What kinds of things produce disagreements for you? In today’s Gospel, Jesus teaches His disciples the proper way to handle conflicts within the Catholic (Universal) Christian community – – the Church. Try to summarize Jesus’ steps He personally proposed for resolving conflicts. How might today’s Gospel enlighten you in handling disagreements?
In today’s Gospel, Jesus also promised (and still promises) He will help those who pray to Him with their needs. Pray that you (and your family and friends) will learn to handle inevitable conflicts in a respectful, loving, Christian way.
First, is her “Immaculate Conception”, declared by Pope Pius IX in 1854, and grandfathered in after the First Vatican Council’s declaration of papal infallibility in 1870. And the second is about her bodily “Assumption” into heaven, declared by Pope Pius XII in 1950.)
“The Peace Prayer of Saint Francis”
“Lord, make me an instrument of your peace.
Where there is hatred, let me sow love.
Where there is injury, pardon.
Where there is doubt, faith.
Where there is despair, hope.
Where there is darkness, light. Where there is sadness, joy.
O Divine Master, grant that I may not so much seek to be consoled, as to console; to be understood, as to understand; to be loved, as to love. For it is in giving that we receive. It is in pardoning that we are pardoned, and it is in dying that we are born to Eternal Life. Amen.”
Pax et Bonum
Dan Halley, SFO
New Translation of the Mass
In November of 2011, with the start of the new Liturgical year and Advent, there will be a few noticeable changes in the Mass. It will still be the same ritual for celebrating the Eucharist. The Mass will still have the same parts, the same patterns, and the same flow as it has had for the past several decades. It is only the translation of the Latin that is changing.
The new translation seeks to correspond much more closely to the exact words and sentence structure of the Latin text. At times, this results in a good and faithful rendering of the original meaning. At other times it produces a rather awkward text in English which is difficult to proclaim and difficult to understand. Most of those problems affect the texts which priests will proclaim rather than the texts that belong to the congregation as a whole. It is to the congregation’s texts that I will address with each blog, in a repetitive basis until the start of Advent.
In the words of Vatican II’s Lumen Gentium, #11, the Eucharist is the “source and summit” of Christian life. Anything we can do to understand our liturgy more deeply will draw us closer to God.
The “Confiteor” (I Confess prayer) has been revised, again to match the Latin texts more closely. More stress is once again placed on our unworthiness more so than in the current missal. It will now say, “I have greatly sinned” and later adds “through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault.”
“I confess to almighty God
and to you, my brothers and sisters,
that I have greatly sinned
in my thoughts and in my words,
in what I have done and in what I have failed to do,
through my fault, through my fault,
through my most grievous fault;
therefore I ask blessed Mary ever-Virgin,
all the Angels and Saints,
and you, my brothers and sisters,
to pray for me to the Lord our God.”
Material from “Changing How We Pray”, by Rev. Lawrence E. Mick
A Franciscan’s Saint of the Day: St. Rose of Viterbo (1233-1251)
Rose achieved sainthood in only 18 years of life. Even as a child Rose had a great desire to pray and to aid the poor. While still very young, she began a life of penance in her parents’ house. She was as generous to the poor as she was strict with herself. At the age of 10 she became a Secular Franciscan and soon began preaching in the streets about sin and the sufferings of Jesus.
Viterbo, her native city, was then in revolt against the pope. When Rose took the pope’s side against the emperor, she and her family were exiled from the city. When the pope’s side won in Viterbo, Rose was allowed to return. Her attempt at age 15 to found a religious community failed, and she returned to a life of prayer and penance in her father’s home, where she died in 1251. Rose was canonized in 1457.
The list of Franciscan saints seems to have quite a few men and women who accomplished nothing very extraordinary. Rose is one of them. She did not influence popes and kings, did not multiply bread for the hungry and never established the religious order of her dreams. But she made a place in her life for God’s grace, and like St. Francis before her, saw death as the gateway to new life.
Rose’s dying words to her parents were: “I die with joy, for I desire to be united to my God. Live so as not to fear death. For those who live well in the world, death is not frightening, but sweet and precious.”
Saint of the Day: Lives, Lessons and Feast
By Leonard Foley, O.F.M.;
revised by Pat McCloskey, O.F.M.
(From http://www.americancatholic.org website)
Franciscan Formation Reflection:
How do you explain what “peace” is?
What are some different meanings for the word “peace” – among governments, neighbors, in families, relationships?
What did Francis mean by this word: “Peace”?
What does Sacred Scripture mean by this word: “Peace”?
Since we are called to be “peacemakers” by Christ, go line by line and explain how each suggestion (pledge line) of the Peace Prayer of St. Francis [above] helps promote peace.
Secular Franciscan Order (SFO) Rule
Subsections #’s 4 & 5 of 26:
04. The rule and life of the Secular Franciscans is this: to observe the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ by following the example of St. Francis of Assisi who made Christ the inspiration and the center of his life with God and people.
Christ, the gift of the Father’s love, is the way to him, the truth into which the Holy Spirit leads us, and the life which he has come to give abundantly. Secular Franciscans should devote themselves especially to careful reading of the gospel, going from gospel to life and life to gospel.
05. Secular Franciscans, therefore, should seek to encounter the living and active person of Christ in their brothers and sisters, in Sacred Scripture, in the Church, and in liturgical activity. The faith of St. Francis, who often said, “I see nothing bodily of the Most High Son of God in this world except His most holy body and blood,” should be the inspiration and pattern of their Eucharistic life.